Word-order systems in Slavic languages.

2012. №5, 3-37


Slavic word order systems fall in five types, tagged W-systems, W+-systems, W*-systems, V-systems, and C­systems in the paper. The first four types have clitic clusters. A cluster is defined as a contact sequence of elements a b c … n from {a, b, c … n}, where the linear order for each pair a, b is fixed. In Slavic languages only clause-level clitics clusterize. This generalization holds for pronominal dative and accusative clitics that can both be clause-level and phrase-level elements. Clusters are phrases and should be distinguished from occasional sequences of adjacent clitics. Clusterizing elements represent one domain, adjacent clitics can represent two or more domains. The internal order in clusters is triggered by Template Rules. There are three areal types of Slavic Template Rules. Slavic languages use up to six different types of clitic hosts, including CPs. All Slavic languages with clusters have Barrier rules that generate derived word orders. The Main Clause Barrier rule typically gives rise to V2 orders as XP – V – CL. Czech and Bulgarian do not apply the Main Clause Barrier rule in declaratives but allow the so called ensembles, i. e. combinations of initial groups preceding clusters with the order XP – CL. There is a mismatch between phonetic and syntactic aspects of strict enclisis. A number of Slavic languages allow for postsyntactic parenthetical insertions that do not change well-formedness conditions for enclisis.